EAP Writing Cause And Effect

Using Cause / Effect Signal Words

Step 1: Copy and paste the following sentences (1-11) into Google Documents. Decide which sentence in each item is a cause and which is an effect. Write C for cause and E for effect next to each sentence.

Step 2: Combine the sentences in each item into a new sentence that shows a cause / effect relationship. Use the cause or effect signal word or phrase given to form your new sentence, and underline the word. You will have to add, delete or change words in most sentences.

1. There are fewer hours of daylight.
In winter, the sun is lower in the sky.
(thus)

2. Some breeds of dogs have a stronger desire to perform a service than other breeds.
They are more suitable as search-and-rescue animals.
(since)

3. Seals and other aquatic mammals can see when they are hunting for food in the dark ocean depths at night.
They have very large eyes.
(due to)

4. Metals have many free-moving electrons.
Metals are good conductors of heat.
(consequently)

5. My company began offering employees flexible working hours.
Productivity has increased.
Absenteeism has declined.
(as a result)

6. Radiation could escape into the atmosphere.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant had no confinement shell.
(hence)

7. Operators had disregarded safety rules.
The nuclear power plant at Chernobyl underwent a meltdown.
(because of)

8. During a weather phenomenon known as El Nino, a mass of warm water flows eastward across the Pacific Ocean toward South America.
The temperature of the water off the coast of Peru rises as much as 10%.
(thereby) Note You must change the verb rise to raise .

9. Weather around the world changes.
During an El Nino, the jet stream blows in a different pattern.
(therefore)

10. In some areas of the world, heavy rains fall.
Devastating floods and mudslides happen.
(cause - verb )

11. In other parts of the world thousands of people suffer starvation.
Drought happens.
(as a result of)

Writing Practice

Choose one of the topics suggested and write a well-organised paragraph in a new word document.

  • Spend 1-2 minutes at the beginning brainstorming and organizing your ideas.
  • Spend 1 minute at the end checking your work.

Causes of stress
Effects of stress
Effects of cell phones on society
Reasons for the popularity of television game shows/ reality shows / soap operas
Effects of a fear (for example, fear of flying)
Benefits of daily exercise
Consequences of eating an unbalanced diet